三国演义中的命运观

《三国演义》是一部长篇历史小说。 全书的目的是叙述历史、保存意义,但情节安排中夹杂着大量有关命运、星相、卦象、灾难的内容。 这些内容不仅是《三国演义》思想内容中不可忽视的一部分,而且相当全面地体现了《三国演义》中的命运观。

《三国演义》中的命运观念以及书中对天象、卦象、灾难等的描述,主要受到中国古代神秘的“天人相接”理论的影响。 董仲舒,西汉儒家,是“天人相吸论”的创始人。 他认为“天”是“百神之王”、“万物之祖”; 他认为“理”,即“天理”或“天道”,是宇宙的本体论,万物的本源(董仲舒《遗书》)。 这是最高的类别。 他将“天道”与人事相比较,认为天人相应。 人们相信上帝可以干预人类事务,天灾和吉祥是上帝对人类的谴责和赞美的标志。 他认为“天亦有喜怒哀乐之情”,“天心”就是“仁者爱人”。 “国家因罪而亡,天先降灾以告之;人若不知其身,则必有其怪;若不知其变,则慎之”。 ,你将会受伤并被击败。” (董仲舒《贤者良策》)同时,董仲舒还认为,统治者的政治措施和行为,以及民众的一些宗教仪式等也能感动上帝。 促使神改变神对人类事务的安排。 他的“天人相传论”是以儒家思想为基础,吸收先秦法家及诸家思想而建立的神学唯心主义体系。 其本质和目的是封建统治阶级所宣扬的。 “王权神授”创造了“理论”基础。

孟子、朱熹等唯心主义哲学家认为,“天”是“理”的本源,人类的观念(理)来自于“天”。 孟子曰:“知其心者,可知其性;知性者,可知天”。 (《孟子·诸心》)朱熹注释孟子的话:“心,人之神,故有万物之理;性,心所具之理;天,本源也。”的原则”。 《三国演义》中对“天”的理解与孟子、朱熹一脉相承。 的。 书中没有对凌霄宫、冥府、龙宫等仙人机构的描述,也没有出现玉皇大帝、菩萨、龙王等仙人人物。 不过,它讲了很多“天数”、“命运”、“命运”。 书中的人物并不是通过“天”的艺术形象来认识“天”,而是从对“天”的崇拜观念出发。 他们对“天”的理解基本上是抽象的、抽象的。 这是理想主义的。

《三国演义》第八十六回记载,蜀国学者秦糜向吴国使者张温解释天理说:“从前,混沌分,阴阳分,轻清者浮上为天,重浊者降下,凝结为地。” 提到的“天”似乎是由物质组成的,但他仍然不知道“除了光明和清澈之外,还有什么”,而自称“无所不能”、“看到一切”的张文,也“不知道”这句话是对的。他们对“天”的认识比较肤浅,唯物主义观点很模糊。

,更多的人物对“天”抱有唯心主义的认识,认为天有“命”、“天理”、“天道”、“天运”、“天数”。 《三国演义》认为“天”有“天数”,而地上国家有“气数”,“天”的“天数”决定“数”。地球各国的“气”。 一个国家的存亡取决于命运。 书中写道,汉代传下来的玉玺上刻有“天命,长生不老”八个字。 “汉家之气”是由“天数”决定的。 书中虽然也指出汉末“乱世之因”是“二帝桓灵”的政治腐败,但也强调:“汉室堪为桓灵”(4章)和“韩家力气已尽”(第八章); 作为对汉末晋初三国历史变迁的总结,书中借用后人诗词曰:“魏吞汉,晋吞曹,周而复始”。命运是不可避免的”(第119章); “世事无穷,日数无穷,无处可逃”(第120章)。 指出“世界大势”是由“天运循环”决定的。 正是这样的信念,“天数”决定“天数”,决定国家的命运。 三国时期的政治人物注重用“天数”和“天意”来捍卫自己的政治行为。 为了夺取政权,曹丕让心腹王朗逼迫汉献帝退位,于是他强调汉朝已“力竭”,“天历”在曹氏(第 80 章); 为了建立封建割据政权,蜀汉王朝也是依靠“天意”创建的。 诸葛亮劝刘备称帝时说:“天神不能受,罪责由他承担”。 刘备即位时,声称“天命必应”,也用“天命”来掩盖自己的皇帝身份。 他们都声称他们的“王权”是由“上帝的旨意”神圣授予的。

《三国演义》认为“天”是变化的精神实体。 “命有来有去,五行不常旺”(第14章)。 书中很多有影响力的人物都有这样的想法。 曹丕逼汉献帝时,书曰:“天命不常”(八十回); 诸葛亮北伐前说:“天变无常”(91回); 王朗与诸葛亮争论时说:“天命有变”(第91章)。 第93章); 司马师又说:“天道三十年一变。” (第108章)然而,《三国演义》所表达的天数变化并不是一个从量变到质变的过程,而是一个没有质变的量变过程。 ,是一个“天数”的周期。 这种日循环所造成的世界大势的分裂与统一的循环,自然是一个量变的过程,而不是质变的过程。

《三国演义》认为,“天”有意志,有情感。 所谓“天心”“天意”“天威”“天怒”在书中随处可见。 董卓死后,被重新安葬。 “当时下大雨,地上积水数丈,霹雳震开他的棺材,尸体被抬出了棺材。” 书中“三重葬未果,皮骨尽毁”。 据书中所说:“天之震怒,何等之大!” (共10回) 《三国演义》中的人物也坚信“天意”。庞统、法正等人劝说刘备谋杀刘璋,夺取益州。 刘备深惧“天不许”,法正则认为是“顺天命”、“天意(天意)”(六十章); 诸葛亮攻克孟获胜后,蜀军经历了“哑巴”

诸葛亮也想:“这难道不是天意吗?” 》(第89章);诸葛亮与王朗争论,还说:“幸天意不至止燕汉王朝”(第93章);但诸葛亮临死前,却遗憾未能完成大业。 “恢复中原,复兴汉室”的伟大事业,当时他们还认为,不是自己不“忠心尽力”,而是“这是天意”(104章)可见,刘备和诸葛亮都相信“天意”有意志,而这个“天意”主宰着人事,这使人感到警惕和恐惧。《三国演义》中的很多人物”相信“天”不仅主宰着无限的世事和人们的命运,而且能够辨别善恶,对人们提供帮助或惩罚。当书中的人物得到帮助或成功时,多说一些诸如“上帝”之类的话语。当你无能为力或失败时,你会经常说“天毁”,“天亡”,“天哀”,“天哀”。和“天赐予你”。 诸如“败”之类的词。 刘备、关羽、张飞在桃园结下不解之缘。 他们祭祀天地。 当客人来帮忙,并献上良马、金银等来帮忙时,刘备认为这是“天意”(1章); 当他被绑架、迷失、“正当无助”时,“忽有万千飞萤,光芒四射,飞到皇帝面前”。 陈留王认为这是“天助”(三章); 官渡兵败,袁绍陷入绝境时,以为是“天死”(第31章); 当刘备陷入险境时,“前有埋伏,后有追兵”,他以为是“天死在我身上”! ”(第64章)。事实上,书中的这些人物并不是真正受到“上帝”的帮助或惩罚,而是他们从自己的理想心态出发,用“上帝的意志”来解释自己现实中的处境。

《三国演义》认为,有德行的政治家和有德行的人民是命运的归宿。 “命无常,有德者”(第80章); “日数变,风度变,属有德之人”(第80章93回)。 书中蜀汉体现了德行和治国之道,因此蜀汉中的许多人物都得到了“天佑”和“天助”。

《三国演义》认为“天”是最高统治者,“天”是公正的,“天意无私”(9章),所以书中非常强调“顺天命” 。 诸葛亮的好友崔州平对刘备说:“君莫闻‘顺自然者安,逆自然者劳’,‘人多之处,无故可夺’。 ;命运所在,人不能强’?” (第37章)他强调“人”不能与“命”相争,“理”不能违背“数”,也就是说人不能与命运、天命作斗争,而应该服从命运。 曹丕的心腹王朗在与诸葛亮辩论时,甚至用古人的话提出了“顺天者昌,逆天者亡”的观点(第93章),肯定“天”是决定国家兴衰的主宰。 诸葛亮与王朗争论时,不但没有否定天意,而且还以“天意”为论据,说“燕汉不至”也是“天意”。 司马懿指出,诸葛亮之所以不情愿地进攻中原,是因为他“自以为聪明,违背自然”,所以结局必然是“自取灭亡”(102章); 诸葛亮自己也承认:“‘人为谋,成事在天’,所以不能强求。” 是啊!”(103章);当他得知自己“生命危在旦夕”后,试图祈灾避祸,但最终没有成功,于是他感慨地说:“生死有命” ,你不会遭受灾难。”(103章).各种

葛亮本是一个胸怀大志、富有智慧、一心想有所作为的人。 他别无选择,只能顺从天意,无法逃脱命运。 所有其他普通人都应该服从上帝的命运。 人的成败取决于天命,人的智力在天意之下很难有所作为。 这种消极的思想,使得《三国演义》中很多人物的思想和性格都带有悲剧色彩。 《三国演义》不仅强调服从命运,而且强调天人合一。 它认为,只有服从人民、服从自然,政权才能巩固,政绩才能成功。 因此,书中很多政治人物都讲“顺民顺自然”。 董卓废黜少帝,立陈留王为献帝。 策文说,这就是所谓“按天按人”(4章); 王允佯装劝董卓按照“禹继舜”的方法称帝,也被说是“大义”。 谋士郭图劝袁绍联手刘备灭曹操,称“合乎天意,民意”(第22章); 阚泽到曹营假装投降时对曹操说:“某某不只是为了爵位和俸禄而来,其实应该服从百姓。” (第 47 章); 孔明等劝刘备即位,还说“当顺天人”(第73章); 孙权劝曹操“趁早即位”,又说“应天顺人”(第78章)。 书中三国重要人物在不同的场合、不同的情况下,反复强调“天人之关系”、“天人之应”、“天人之和”、“天意”。 “天人合一”,强调“天人合一”,“上合天意,下合民情”。 这种统一“天道”与“人道”的思想是汉儒、宋儒所提倡的。 董仲舒说:“天人合一”(《春秋繁露》); 程浩说:“天人无别”(《二程语录》); 朱熹说:“天人一物,内外同也”。 天人合一的学说显然是受到汉宋儒学影响的结果。

《三国演义》中,所谓“天意”是通过天象、吉凶、星卦、歌谣谶语、诱导梦等一整套完整的预言系统来揭示的。 书中认为吉凶预兆、星辰的明亮、天象的变化、谣言、预言、梦暗示等都是“天意”的表现。 因此,书中非常重视对各种预言、预兆等的描述。

《三国演义》讲“夜观千香”、“仰望天文”、“夜观星辰”的地方约有二十处。 他们大多利用占星、天文来预测大局政局和杰出将领的吉凶。 例如,太史令王力“抬头观天文”,预言“汉朝之势将尽,魏晋将盛”。 (第14章)人们默认曹魏的建立是天意。 又如,官渡之战前夕,谋士巨受仰望天空,预言“可能有土匪掠夺”。 袁绍不听他的话,曹操就烧毁了乌巢的粮草。 曹操看到“南方之盛”,心中想到东吴孙权“未必能继位”(第33章)。 谯周见“北方盛”,劝诸葛亮不要强行攻魏(第91章)。至于描写孙坚、周瑜、庞统、关羽、张飞等人的死,都是将军名将落在了天空中。 诸葛亮看到“三颗星中,客星倍亮,主星昏暗”,知道自己性命攸关等等,都强调天人相应,人根据对天象

猜猜什么叫做“天意”。 《三国演义》中善于观察天象、预测吉凶的人物并不多。 诸葛亮是最好的。 其他如谯周、尹夔、鞠叔,甚至曹操、刘备、司马懿等,也都不同程度地精通天象。 《三国演义》中描写吉兆和凶兆的地方约有三十处。 孙坚、董卓、张飞、赵云、曹丕、孙权、诸葛恪等人的死,都有“突然大风起”、“城门无故倒塌”等不祥之兆。 ,还是“江海汹涌”,不只在一端。 当董卓将死时,他的母亲感到“惶恐不安,浑身颤抖”(9回); 关羽被杀时,刘备“浑身发抖,行坐不安”(77回); 当张飞被杀时,刘备也感到“心惊胆战”。 卧床不宁、睡不安稳”(第81章)。有关人物的这种感官心境反应也是一个征兆。一般来说,《三国演义》在讲到国家和人物处于危险之中时,都会有汉代,桓灵失势,左国即将灭亡,书中提到大风、青蛇、地震、海水泛滥、母鸡等“种种不祥之事”。化为雄,黑气飞入文德殿。如果魏朝衰落,就会有风吹灭灯等不祥之兆。皇帝的诞生和出行,或者王朝的崛起,往往伴随着比如,曹丕出生时,有“紫云”“遮室”(第32章);阿斗有难时,有“红灯”保护等。书中一方面展示了世间的预兆,另一方面也写了政治人物求兆避祸、求福的故事。 曹魏代汉建立时,有“凤凰来”、“麒麟出”的报道(第七十九章); 蜀汉建立时,也有“祥风明云”的报道(第80回)。 以预兆为依据,解释这一群体封建政权的合法性。

在《三国演义》中,诸葛亮等人非常重视天下之兆。 几乎每一个预兆都会问吉凶,每一个预兆都在书中应验了。 刘备遇见关羽时,一排排青旗卷起,一只乌鸦从北飞向南,叫了三声,飞走了。 诸葛亮吸取了教训,“长沙郡已攻陷,主已得将军”。 果然,关羽攻克长沙,擒获黄忠。 ,魏延及两名将领被贬(五十三章); 诸葛亮正准备出兵,突然从东北角刮起一阵大风,吹断了朝堂前的松树。 诸葛亮吸取教训,决定“此风伤大将军”。 果然,赵云病重去世(第九十七章)。 用占卜来解读预兆、预测吉凶,也是《三国演义》中的一绝。 《三国演义》中有很多占卜大师。 除了诸葛亮之外,还有孙翊的妻子徐氏、吕范、庞统、关仁等。 一日徐氏占卜“夷”时,得了大凶卦,劝丈夫孙翊小心,孙翊不听,被卞洪所杀(第38章); 关人被视为神占卜,是曹操请他做的。 占卜天下事,预言:“三月八日,黄猪遇虎,丁军之南,必有伤。” 后果应该是,建安二十四年己亥正月,曹操大将夏侯渊被黄忠所杀(第六十九章); 关鲁占卜劝告曹操“不可轻举妄动”,并预言“来年春天许都将发生火灾”。 就连一向多疑的曹操也相信了(第六十九章)。 占卜已成为先知用来预测吉凶万无一失的方法。

《三国演义》中,有几位精通“数学”的高手。 他们懂得命运的数学,能够准确地预测吉凶。子胥大师在刘备入西川之前就预言了诸葛亮和庞统的命运,说道:“左龙

右凤飞入西川。 雏凤落地,蛟龙腾空。 一得一失,天数是当然的。 趁机行动,勿失九泉。 ”(第六十二章)。果然,庞统,道号凤初,先死在落凤坡。又如异人李益,刘备问他出兵伐吴有罪时,他二话不说。而是画了一张图,有四十多幅描绘士兵、马匹和装备的图画,然后它们被一一撕成碎片,然后是一个人仰面躺在地上,被埋葬,然后被撕成碎片的图画。然后写下“白”字,然后离开(第81章)。虽然行为看似疯狂,但其实其中的秘密是深刻的。后来刘备在夷陵被东吴将军陆逊击败,失去了军队和将领,最后遗憾病逝于白帝城,李益的字画早已预言了刘备的命运,至于关仁预言夏侯渊死后,曹丕称帝;诸葛亮在摩天立石碑里奇道:“第二场大火刚刚开始升起,就会有人穿越这里。 “两个人正在为平衡而战,他们很快就会死去。” 钟会、邓艾内讧之死的预言,都是神算的结果。 这些人物在《三国演义》中被描绘成半人半仙,拥有非凡的能力。 人物,其实也是书中预言命运的代言人。 《三国演义》中对人物梦境的描述有十五六处。 这些梦都是人物吉凶预兆的幻想表达。 吴夫人曾经在后裔孙策成长过程中“梦见怀里的月亮”,次子孙权“梦见怀里的太阳”。 占卜者认为这个梦意味着“他的儿子将成为贵人”,孙策和孙权确实取得了江东的基础(38(78章);曹操建造了第一座宫殿并砍了梨树为梁。夜里,他梦见梨树神来报仇,说自己已经累坏了,醒来后头痛难忍(第七十八章);后主刘禅在成都,夜里梦见成都锦屏山崩塌,确实与诸葛亮战死(105回)不谋而合。《三国演义》中的很多梦都含有对现实人物处境和吉凶祸福的暗示,也是作者在梦中揭示出所谓的天意,命运。

《三国演义》中引用的预言和童谣约有十处。 这些传闻、预言大多与天象、预兆、预言相符,暗示着人物的吉凶或国家的未来。 例如,在写庞统与诸葛亮的相遇时,引用了一首童谣:“凤凰与龙交融,将至蜀中,半途凤凰死,坠落于蜀中”。坡东。风带来雨,雨随风。汉盛时,蜀道通。“蜀道通,唯有龙。”(第63章) )暗示庞统将被杀,蜀中仅存军师一人诸葛亮。又如徐质等逼迫汉朝献上皇帝禅位时,在谈到千祥后,引用了预言:“鬼魂在侧,两相连。 当代汉代无言。 言在东,午在西; 这两天在一起,灯光忽明忽暗。 《三国演义》中的童谣和预言大多预示人物的吉凶,也有少数书中的人物利用它们作为夺取权力的借口。

在《三国演义》的描写中,命运比鬼神更重要,所以命运的描写较多,鬼神的描写相对较少。 出场的只有女人形态的火德星君(11集)、“棋手”形态的“南斗”和“北斗”(69集)、老人形态的“山神”、有限的仙神不是大仙,而是小神。 南斗和北斗让年轻的赵岩寿命更长; 山神让他中了牙泉之毒

蜀兵得了解药。 他们每个人都做了一件好事。 他还写到无辜的灵魂向曹操、曹睿、诸葛恪等杀人凶手索要生命,表现了暴虐人民的报应。 值得注意的是三个灵魂显现为圣人的人物。 他们都是蜀国的大臣和将领。 关羽死后,他的精神依然存在,经常以圣人的形象出现,保护玉泉山的百姓。 后来,他的精神一直萦绕在吴将吕蒙的心头。 吕蒙七窍失血而死。 关羽报仇(第七十七章); 关羽的神魂再次散去。 吴将潘章魂助关兴杀潘章(83章); 伏波将军马援显圣明,解救在牙泉中毒的蜀军(八十九章); 诸葛亮显出圣贤,请魏将钟会“来川”“勿滥杀生灵”(116章),保护了四川人民。 三人虽已成鬼,但依然忠于蜀汉事业,爱憎分明。 《三国演义》中也有一些对《天书》、《修魔神功》的描述,以及呼风唤雨、飞沙飞石等奇异现象的描述。等等,大多是迷信的、荒唐的、荒唐的。

概括《三国演义》中的命运观,其基本内容是基于汉宋儒家“天人相传”的神秘学说。 人们认为,天有意志,有情感,能辨别是非,有褒贬倾向,能预兆天下大事。 影响并最终主宰世界人类事务的精神本源; 认为“天意”是人不可违逆的,世事是注定的,人只能顺应天意; 国家政权和人事成就只有顺应人与自然才能存在和实现。 成功,否则国亡民亡。 “世间无边无际,天数难逃。” (第120章)体现了《三国演义》中命运的基本思想。

《三国演义》所宣扬的命运观属于唯心主义思想体系。 它本质上是封建阶级统治人民的精神武器。 它也是占统治地位的封建集团用来排除其他封建集团争夺封建统治阶级政治权力的工具。 。 这种命运观为封建统治阶级制造的王权神授的谎言提供了“理论”依据; 这种命运观所表达的命运观念与封建迷信、因果报应论等相结合,成为封建阶级意识形态的重要组成部分,起到了使人民屈服的反动作用。 rule of the feudal class, paralyzing and poisoning the people’s ideological and spiritual thoughts. As an ideology, its idealist ideological system is unworthy and its reactionary nature should be criticized. However, the view of destiny in “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms” also emphasizes that destiny is based on virtue, showing a clear tendency that good will be rewarded with good and evil will be rewarded with evil. This is consistent with the book’s praise of benevolent government and loyalty, and the affirmation of Shu Han’s destiny as orthodox. Highlighting the theme of punishing evil and promoting good, punishing violence and praising benevolence in the whole book has a certain positive effect. Therefore, its positive factors should be analyzed in detail and should not be completely denied in a simplistic way.

From the perspective of artistic description, the role of the description of astronomical phenomena and omens and prophecies related to the concept of destiny mixed in the plot of “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms” in the book should be analyzed in detail. “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms” is a historical novel that uses seven facts and three imaginary

The artistic method is based on historical romance, and the historical changes that it describes about the late Han Dynasty, the separation of heroes, the rise of the Three Kingdoms, and the unification of the country in the Western Jin Dynasty for nearly a century are basically based on historical evidence, including major political events and important wars, as well as the life and thoughts of important figures, etc. It is also basically consistent with historical reality. The plot of Yishi Romance is the basic plot and main content of “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms”. “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms” also contains artistic fiction in terms of character creation and plot artistic description. This kind of fiction is mostly derived from historical events, making the plot more vivid, the characters more full, and the tendencies more distinct, thus adding artistic reality to the whole book. As for the promotion of the concept of destiny, astronomical phenomena, good and bad omens, star hexagrams, ballads and prophecies, descriptions of sensory dreams, etc., they are mostly incidental and mixed, and do not constitute the main content of the book, nor do they play an important role in the overall plot structure of the book. 地位。 Moreover, these descriptions sometimes have a special function in the book. The description of astronomical omens and prophecies combined with the narrative of historical events often create the artistic effect of foreshadowing. The better described parts also add literary interest to the work. For example, Chapter 63 describes Pang Tong’s tragic death on Luofengpo. He first writes about Peng Jiang, a hero from Sichuan, who reminded Liu Bei that the celestial phenomena were unlucky. “. Following the writing, military advisor Zhuge Liang sent Ma Liang to write a letter to Liu Bei, again mentioning that “Gang Star is in the west”, “Taibai is near Luocheng”, and Qian Xiang “has many evils and few good fortunes in the general”, reminding Liu Bei to “be cautious”. . The two matters naturally attracted Liu Bei’s attention, and he decided to return to Jingzhou to discuss the matter. Unexpectedly, it aroused Pang Tong’s misunderstanding, thinking that Zhuge Liang was afraid that he would succeed in taking Xichuan, and “deliberately blocked this book.”

” Then he interpreted the number of Taiyi and said, “The Gang star is in the west”, it was Liu Bei who “joined Xichuan” and “Don’t be the master of bad things”, and “Taibai came to Luocheng and killed Shu general Lingbao first, which was a bad omen.” Therefore, he urged Liu Bei not to be suspicious and to “advance the troops in a hurry.” Liu Bei had no choice but to march into Luocheng. He wanted to take the southern path. Liu Bei considered what Zhuge Liang said in his letter and was worried about his safety, so he used the Night Dream God to Someone struck his right arm with an iron rod and persuaded him to “still guard Fu Pass”, which made him laugh again and revealed his misunderstanding of Zhuge Liang, saying that Liu Bei was “confused by Kong Ming” and “doubts lead to dreams.” , defeated Liu Bei’s army, so Liu Bei had no choice but to agree to continue the march. During the march, another ominous incident occurred, “the horse’s eyes were missing when he was sitting down”, and he was thrown off the horse. Liu Bei knew that he was “caught in front of the battle” when he sat down. He “wasted someone’s life” and still ignored his own safety and changed the horse he was riding with him. He was deeply moved and said: “I deeply feel that my lord is so kind that even if I die, I can’t repay it. “Reflecting the friendship between masters and ministers. He rode Liu Bei’s white horse and took a small road to Luofengpo. He was mistaken by Shu general Zhang Ren for Liu Bei and set up an ambush. But he saw that this place was “narrowed by two mountains and densely packed with trees.” I have serious doubts in my heart.” When he heard that this place was called “Luofengpo,” Fang was shocked and said, “My Taoist name is Fengchu, and the name of this place is Luofengpo, which is not good for me. “Fang wanted to retreat, but died tragically under random arrows. After his death, the book quoted Southeastern nursery rhymes to echo the situation. The entire plot combines historical narratives with omens such as astrological ballads and prophecies, which are repeatedly exaggerated and layered. The layers are in-depth, refer to each other, the ups and downs, the detailed psychological description is realistic, the characters have distinct personalities, and good artistic effects have been achieved.

In addition, Cui Zhouping predicted that Zhuge Liang’s actions against heaven would be in vain; Li Yi hinted at Liu Bei’s defeat at Baidi City; Zhuge Liang watched the celestial phenomena before his death and knew that his life was imminent, but he still tried to avoid disaster at the Wuzhangyuan Star, but in vain , expressing the sadness of “life and death, destiny, and escape if you can’t get it!”, etc., are also quite literary. However, overall, the descriptions of destiny, astrology, omens and prophecies in “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms” are mostly not very vivid and lack new ideas. They are not the essence of art in the book, so they cannot represent the artistic features and achievements of “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms”.

“The Romance of the Three Kingdoms” promotes the concept of destiny, and the plot is mixed with descriptions of astronomical phenomena, divination, ballads, and prophecies. On the one hand, it is directly related to the author’s concept of interaction between heaven and man, feudal superstitious thoughts, and idealistic views of history. On the other hand, it is also related to China’s It is closely related to the influence of the artistic creation tradition of ancient novels. During the Yuan and Ming dynasties when Cheng-Zhu Neo-Confucianism was dominant, the concept of divine right of kings was a ruling thought consistently promoted by the feudal ruling class. It is natural and not surprising that Luo Guanzhong had the concepts of divine right of kings, divine connection between heaven and man, and destiny. At that time, the public and novel readers generally believed in the destiny of gods and ghosts. “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms” promotes the concept of destiny and mixes the descriptions with related star hexagrams and ballads and prophecies. This is actually a reflection of the class limitations and era limitations of the author’s thoughts in the artistic creation of “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms”. Judging from the development process of ancient Chinese novels, the concept of destiny and related descriptions in “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms” are obviously influenced by the plot content and artistic methods of some strange novels and legends of the Tang and Song Dynasties since the Wei and Jin Dynasties. When Lu Xun analyzed the social reasons for the emergence of fantasy novels during the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, he profoundly pointed out: “China originally believed in witchcraft. Since the Qin and Han Dynasties, the theory of gods has become popular. At the end of the Han Dynasty, witchcraft became popular, and ghosts became more and more popular; after learning Theravada Buddhism, It also entered the Central Plains and gradually spread, all of which describe the ghosts and gods of the emperor and praise the supernatural. Therefore, from the Jin Dynasty to the Sui Dynasty, there are many books about ghosts, gods and strange things.” (“A Brief History of Chinese Novel”) The creation of “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms” was obviously influenced by ambition. It is influenced by strange novels, and some of its themes are taken from strange novels such as Qianbao’s “Sou Shen Ji” of the Jin Dynasty. It’s just that “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms” combines the stories of supernatural beings and the concept of interaction between heaven and man with historical events. Mixing strange descriptions of destiny in novel creation is also a quite common phenomenon after “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms”. Even in excellent realist novels such as “Water Margin”, “Plum Plum”, “The Scholars” and “Dream of Red Mansions” “In “, there are also performances of varying degrees.Author: Liu Xiaoyan